Ever since Richard Feynman proposed quantum computing in the 1980s, physicists and pc scientists have been intrigued by the idea of a quantum pc. In concept, changing the zeros and ones of typical pc bits with the ups and downs or the clockwise and counterclockwise spins of subatomic particles can yield up to a cube root improve in computing velocity. But there are various alternative ways of implementing a quantum pc – and all of them make excessive technical calls for on the hardware, for example sustaining cryogenic temperatures approaching absolute zero. It’s because quantum processors are very fragile – at larger temperatures the methods can grow to be decoherent, dropping info and producing noise and errors.
Representation of a qubit. By Smite-Meister CC BY-SA three.0
For years this put quantum computing within the realm of science fiction and beyond the attain of startups. But in 2015, Google and NASA unveiled the first operational quantum pc, which it has continued to improve upon and some speculate might be close to turning into operable, or attaining “quantum supremacy”. And by the top of 2017 IBM, Microsoft, Google, and lots of others had all introduced cloud-based quantum computer systems that startups can lease to develop purposes for the quantum platforms.
In the previous few years cyberattacks have made governments and security-conscious businesses urgently interested in the theoretical capability of quantum computing to interrupt most trendy methods of public key encryption – and to create new, unbreakable methods. There are additionally hosts of almost unattainable scientific issues, from astrophysics to zoology, that would grow to be tractable if and when any person will get quantum computing right. So the belief of a practical quantum computer systems has develop into the aim of many new startups and buyers.
Lately we featured Riverlane’s €three.7 million seed spherical to develop its quantum computing-based simulation engine to exchange laboratory exams in areas resembling drug discovery. In this evaluate of the quantum computing subject, we’ve identified over 50 lately based European startups. Quantum computer systems are nonetheless suffering from noise, and there still isn’t a quantum pc that outperforms conventional computers, so it’s nonetheless too early to call any winners, but right here’s a representative pattern of ten extra European groups on the starting line:
Cambridge Quantum Computing Restricted (CQC), founded in 2014, is probably the most mature startup on this record. Given the various alternative ways during which quantum computers might be carried out and the uncertainty over which technical strategy will prevail, CQC develops “architecture-agnostic” quantum software. Amongst its merchandise are t|ket>, its architecture-independent quantum compiler; Eumen, its quantum chemistry platform; Quantum ML, its quantum machine studying framework; and Ironbridge, its quantum cybersecurity gadget. CQC has raised $18.8 million thus far.
IQM Finland is constructing scalable cryogenic hardware for quantum computers, creating high-speed quantum processors utilizing superconducting qubits to scale back error charges. IQM’s most up-to-date technological breakthrough drives quantum measurement time right down to 300 nanoseconds. Based mostly in Espoo, IQM Finland was founded in 2018 as a spin-off of the Quantum Computing and Units research group of Aalto College and is affiliated with Quantum Know-how Finland, a national excellence middle funded by the Academy of Finland. IQM Finland simply raised €11.6 million in financing to additional develop its hardware solutions.
JoS QUANTUM – Based in 2018 and situated in Frankfurt, JoS Quantum is creating quantum software algorithms for the financial providers sector. Like CQC, JoS seeks to be “architecture-independent” and supply access to varied superior and quantum computing implementations, whether or not they are based mostly on Quantum Processing Models (QPUs), Quantum Annealers, Graphical Processing Models (GPUs), Software-specific Integrated Circuit (ASICs), or Area Programmable Gate Array (FPGAs). JoS seeks to speed up fixing enterprise problems in danger administration, fraud detection, trading, and more. The JoS platform is a calculation engine which is accessible by way of cloud, and is definitely integratable into present IT landscapes.
Part Area Computing was founded in 2017 in Linköping, Sweden. The startup doesn’t precisely do quantum computing, but produces instructional toolkits that simulate quantum computing so that college students can study it. Its featured toolkits embrace:
- Quantum Key Distribution – This enables two speaking parties to generate a shared encryption key. Any try and listen in on this course of might be detected.
- Teleportation and Superdense Coding – Allows info to be despatched by way of a single “entangled” quantum qubit.
- The Deutsch-Jozsa Quantum Algorithm – Supplies an accessible example of how superposition and interference is used in quantum computation.
- Shor’s Quantum Algorithm – This algorithm can be utilized to factor giant integers efficiently in a quantum pc, a hard drawback for regular computers. Cracking it with quantum computing will crack most at present used public key encryption techniques, a leading cause for current analysis curiosity in quantum computing.
Q-Lion is another quantum computing software program startup based mostly in Madrid and based in January 2019. Q-Lion focuses on creating practical fault-tolerant quantum error-correcting codes. As previously mentioned, quantum computers are topic to noise and errors once they lose coherence. To fight decoherence, Q-Lion is creating low-level error-correcting codes specifically for trapped-ion quantum computers.
HQS Quantum Simulations is creating quantum algorithms to predict molecular properties for all types of supplies and chemical compounds, in fields from prescription drugs to agrochemicals. As a result of the development of specialty chemical compounds in these fields is iterative, time-consuming, and sometimes very costly, simulations are extensively used to decrease product improvement cycles, time-to-market, and R&D costs. Nevertheless in lots of instances, simulations are simply not superior enough to deal with sure problems. HQS is creating software program for business quantum computing to deal with these problems at scale. HQS was founded in 2018 and is predicated in Karlsruhe, Germany.
Quandela – Some quantum researchers are experimenting with using photons as qubits. Based in 2017 near Paris, Quandela has designed a photon source system for quantum-based research and communication. The startup has developed a way that makes it attainable to emit single photons with similar characteristics from quantum dots at cryogenic temperatures. Its single-photon supply gadget combines photonics and semiconductor quantum dots to allow the collection of emitted single-photons with distinctive effectivity, enabling researchers to strongly scale back the decoherence in quantum computing. Quandela has been funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme.
Based mostly in Munich, Kiutra builds cryogenic refrigeration techniques that quantum computer systems need to stop noise, or as we’ve got beforehand referred to, decoherence. Nevertheless Kiutra’s business mannequin goes beyond quantum computing – cryogenic temperatures are a key prerequisite for a lot of different research and industrial purposes. Kiutra is a spin-off of the Physics Department on the Technical College of Munich, which has an extended tradition of creating novel approaches to providing excessive low temperatures, and brings more than 50 years of cryo-engineering experience to the duty. Kiutra closed a seed spherical with High-Tech Gründerfonds and APEX Ventures in Might 2019.
GTN (Generative Tensorial Networks) has developed and patented a quantum machine studying know-how to rework drug discovery. Bringing a single new drug to the market costs almost $three billion, and sometimes solely delivers an intervention that barely differs from these already available on the market. Projections into the longer term aren’t promising, with an expected 50% drop in R&D output every nine years. GTN uses quantum-based software to look the astronomically giant area of drug-like molecules. Its software program combines and builds upon methods from machine studying and quantum physics to generate novel medicine from recognized patterns. Based mostly in London, GTN was founded in 2017 and has raised £2.1 million across two rounds.
Based mostly in Copenhagen, Sparrow Quantum A/S develops and commercializes photonic quantum know-how elements based mostly on analysis and patents developed within the Niels Bohr Institute Quantum Photonics Lab. Sparrow is making photonic analysis simpler with its new single-photon chip, which delivers a stream of single photons to the computational stream with 98% efficiency. Founded in 2015, Sparrow is funded by Seier Capital and Innovation Fund Denmark by means of the Bohr Photonics Lab and the Danish Middle for Quantum Innovation, Qubiz.
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